1. Spanish injustice against Native Americans included
A. the practice of indigenous religion.
B. the destruction of native temples.
C. forced conversion to Christianity.
D. forced labor and the confiscation of land.
2. The first circumnavigation of the world was completed by the crew of
A. Vasco da Gama.
3. Cortes's expeditions were motivated primarily by the desire
A. to place Mexico under Portuguese rule.
B. to control the spice trade.
C. for gold.
D. to find sources of slave labor.
4. England was declared a commonwealth after the defeat of
A. Oliver Cromwell.
B. Charles I.
C. Charles II.
D. George II.
5. The French and Indian War involved disputes over
A. land claims and fur-trading rights.
B. smuggling and shipbuilding in colonial ports.
C. French adherence to the Navigation Acts.
D. the right to tax Canadian colonists.
6. The policy of summoning civilian men into military service is
C. coup d'etat.
7. The Declaration of the Rights of Man guaranteed all of the following EXCEPT
A. freedom of speech.
B. equal rights for women.
C. freedom of religion.
D. protection against arbitrary arrest.
8. One of the National Assembly's most important reforms was to
A. lower taxes on the nobility.
B. abolish feudal dues.
C. restore absolute monarchy.
D. raise taxes on the artisans.
9. Before the revolution, members of the Third Estate had
A. a smaller tax burden than the other estates.
B. a voice in government equal to that of the First and Second Estates.
C. greater political influence than the clergy.
D. a high tax burden and little political power.
10. A major factor in Napoleon's failure to defeat Russia was
A. the harsh Russian winter.
B. Russian naval supremacy.
C. the opposition of the Catholic Church.
D. the Continental System.
11. Pedro Alvares Cabral's defeat of the Arab fleet helped to establish
A. Portuguese control of the Indian Ocean.
B. Spanish dominance in South America.
C. Spanish control of the Spice Islands.
D. the spread of Christianity in the Americas.
12. The formation of joint-stock companies allowed private investors to
A. make government-chartered banks obsolete.
B. share the risks and profits of an undertaking.
C. obtain church support for voyages of exploration.
D. use coins as a medium of exchange.
13. By 1650, the population of Europe had reached about
A. 20 million.
B. 50 million.
C. 55 million.
D. 100 million.
14. The European class that benefited most from the economic expansion of the Commercial Revolution was the
C. merchant class.
15. In the West Indies, Columbus believed that he had discovered
A. a "New World."
B. Asian islands off the coast of India.
C. the Northwest passage.
16. A rebellion of enslaved Africans led to the proclamation in 1804 of an independent
17. The greatest increase in trade during the 1600s took place in
A. countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.
B. countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
C. Germany and Italy.
D. countries along the overland trade routes to Asia.
18. The first European country to explore the Atlantic in search of a sea route to Asia was
D. the Netherlands.
19. Through the 1500s, merchants raised the money for overseas ventures primarily from
A. banking families.
B. government-chartered banks.
C. individual entrepreneurs.
D. feudal lords.
20. The Act of Union in 1707 united
A. England and Ireland.
B. the House of Stuart with the House of Hanover.
C. England and Scotland.
D. France and Scotland.
21. Critical Thinking Describe the expedition of Ferdinand Magellan. Who sponsored his voyage? What did it prove?
22. Critical Thinking Describe the class structure of prerevolutionary French society.
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